Molecular phylogenetics has transitioned into the phylogenomic era, with data derived from next-generation sequencing technologies allowing unprecedented phylogenetic resolution in all animal groups, including understudied invertebrate taxa. Within the most diverse harvestmen suborder, Laniatores, most relationships at all taxonomic levels have yet to be explored from a phylogenomics perspective. Travunioidea is an early-diverging lineage of laniatorean harvestmen with a Laurasian distribution, with species distributed in eastern Asia, eastern and western North America, and south-central Europe. This clade has had a challenging taxonomic history, but the current classification consists of ~77 species in three families, the Travuniidae, Paranonychidae, and Nippononychidae. Travunioidea classification has traditionally been based on structure of the tarsal claws of the hind legs. However, it is now clear that tarsal claw structure is a poor taxonomic character due to homoplasy at all taxonomic levels. Here, we utilize DNA sequences derived from capture of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) to reconstruct travunioid relationships. Data matrices consisting of 317–677 loci were used in maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and species tree analyses. Resulting phylogenies recover four consistent and highly supported clades; the phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of the enigmatic genus Yuria is less certain. Based on the resulting phylogenies, a revision of Travunioidea is proposed, now consisting of the Travuniidae, Cladonychiidae, Paranonychidae (Nippononychidae is synonymized), and the new family Cryptomastridae Derkarabetian & Hedin, fam. n., diagnosed here. The phylogenetic utility and diagnostic features of the intestinal complex and male genitalia are discussed in light of phylogenomic results, and the inappropriateness of the tarsal claw in diagnosing higher-level taxa is further corroborated.