Alpine plant radiations are common across all major mountain systems of the world, and have been regarded as the main explanation for the species diversity found within these areas. To study the mechanisms behind the origin of this diversity, it is necessary to determine phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries in radiating alpine groups. The genus Dendrosenecio (Asteraceae) is an iconic example of a tropical-alpine plant radiation in the East African high mountains. To this date, limited sampling of molecular markers has resulted in insufficient phylogenetic resolution and infrageneric classification, hindering a comprehensive understanding of the drivers of diversification. Here, we used Hyb-Seq and the Compositae1061 probe set to generate targeted nuclear and off-target plastid DNA data for 42 samples representing all currently accepted 11 species. We combined coalescent methods and paralogy analysis to infer phylogenetic relationships, estimate divergence times and evaluate species boundaries. Lineage differentiation in Dendrosenecio seems to have occurred between the Late Miocene and the Pleistocene, starting when the first high elevation habitats became available in East Africa. We retrieved four major clades corresponding to four geographically distant mountain groups, testifying the importance of allopatric speciation in the early diversification of the group. Cytonuclear discordance suggested the occurrence of historical hybridization following occasional long-distance dispersal between mountain groups. The species delimitation analysis favored 10 species, but only five were fully supported, suggesting that population-level studies addressing processes such as ecological speciation and hybridization after secondary contact are needed to determine the current diversity found in the genus.