‘Breadfruit’ is a common tree species in Taiwan. In the indigenous Austronesian Amis culture of eastern Taiwan, ‘breadfruit’ is known as Pacilo , and its fruits are consumed as food. On Lanyu (Botel Tobago) where the indigenous Yami people live, ‘breadfruit’ is called Cipoho and used for constructing houses and plank-boats. Elsewhere in Taiwan, ‘breadfruit’ is also a common ornamental tree. As an essential component of traditional Yami culture, Cipoho has long been assumed to have been transported from the Batanes Island of the Philippines to Lanyu. As such, it represents a commensal species that potentially can be used to test the hypothesis of the northward Austronesian migration ‘into’ Taiwan. However, recent phylogenomic studies using target enrichment show that Taiwanese ‘breadfruit’ might not be the same as the Pacific breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis ), which was domesticated in Oceania and widely cultivated throughout the tropics. To resolve persistent misidentification of this culturally and economically important tree species of Taiwan, we sampled 36 trees of Taiwanese Artocarpus and used the Moraceae probe set to enrich 529 nuclear genes. Along with 28 archived Artocarpus sequence datasets (representing a dozen taxa from all subgenera), phylogenomic analyses showed that all Taiwanese ‘breadfruit’ samples, together with a cultivated ornamental tree from Hawaii, form a fully supported clade within the A . treculianus complex, which is composed only of endemic Philippine species. Morphologically, the Taiwanese ‘breadfruit’ matches the characters of A . treculianus . Within the Taiwanese samples of A . treculianus , Amis samples form a fully supported clade derived from within the paraphyletic grade composed of Yami samples, suggesting a Lanyu origin. Results of our target enrichment phylogenomics are consistent with the scenario that Cipoho was transported northward from the Philippines to Lanyu by Yami ancestors, though the possibility that A . treculianus is native to Lanyu cannot be ruled out completely.
Home » Amis Pacilo and Yami Cipoho are not the same as the Pacific breadfruit starch crop—Target enrichment phylogenomics of a long-misidentified Artocarpus species sheds light on the northward Austronesian migration from the Philippines to Taiwan
Amis Pacilo and Yami Cipoho are not the same as the Pacific breadfruit starch crop—Target enrichment phylogenomics of a long-misidentified Artocarpus species sheds light on the northward Austronesian migration from the Philippines to Taiwan
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