Rome initiated several campaigns to expand, conquer, and enslave local Italic populations following the establishment of the republic in 504 BCE. However, the cultural and biological changes resulting from Roman subjugation across Italy remain a topic of intense historical debate. Although important, historic and archaeological lines of evidence fail to track the impact of forced enslavement and enculturation at individual and broader genetic scales and, more generally, offer fewer clues regarding the potential affinities of Roman period Italians to European, Near Eastern, western Asian and North African populations at this time.