Cytogenomic resources have accelerated synteny and chromosome evolution studies in plant species, including legumes. Here, we established the first cytogenetic map of V. angularis (Va, subgenus Ceratotropis) and compared this new map with those of V. unguiculata (Vu, subgenus Vigna) and P. vulgaris (Pv) by BAC-FISH and oligopainting approaches. We mapped 19 Vu BACs and 35S rDNA probes to the 11 chromosome pairs of Va, Vu, and Pv. Vigna angularis shared a high degree of macrosynteny with Vu and Pv, with five conserved syntenic chromosomes. Additionally, we developed two oligo probes (Pv2 and Pv3) used to paint Vigna orthologous chromosomes. We confirmed two reciprocal translocations (chromosomes 2 and 3 and 1 and 8) that have occurred after the Vigna and Phaseolus divergence (~9.7 Mya). Besides, two inversions (2 and 4) and one translocation (1 and 5) have occurred after Vigna and Ceratotropis subgenera separation (~3.6 Mya). We also observed distinct oligopainting patterns for chromosomes 2 and 3 of Vigna species. Both Vigna species shared similar major rearrangements compared to Pv: one translocation (2 and 3) and one inversion (chromosome 3). The sequence synteny identified additional inversions and/or intrachromosomal translocations involving pericentromeric regions of both orthologous chromosomes. We propose chromosomes 2 and 3 as hotspots for chromosomal rearrangements and de novo centromere formation within and between Vigna and Phaseolus. Our BAC- and oligo-FISH mapping contributed to physically trace the chromosome evolution of Vigna and Phaseolus and its application in further studies of both genera.