The Neotropical region represents one of the greatest biodiversity hot spots on earth. Despite its unparalleled biodiversity, regional comparative phylogeographic studies are still scarce, with most focusing on model clades (e.g. birds) and typically examining a handful of loci. Here, we apply a genome-wide comparative phylogeographic approach to test hypotheses of codiversification of freshwater fishes in the trans-Andean region. Using target capture methods, we examined exon data for over 1,000 loci combined with complete mitochondrial genomes to study the phylogeographic history of five primary fish species (>150 individuals) collected from eight major river basins in Northwestern South America and Lower Central America. To assess their patterns of genetic structure, we inferred genealogical concordance taking into account all major aspects of phylogeography (within loci, across multiple genes, across species and among biogeographic provinces). Based on phylogeographic concordance factors, we tested four a priori biogeographic hypotheses, finding support for three of them and uncovering a novel, unexpected pattern of codiversification. The four emerging inter-riverine patterns are as follows: (a) Tuira + Atrato, (b) Ranchería + Catatumbo, (c) Magdalena system and (d) Sinú + Atrato. These patterns are interpreted as shared responses to the complex uplifting and orogenic processes that modified or sundered watersheds, allowing codiversification and speciation over geological time. We also find evidence of cryptic speciation in one of the species examined and instances of mitochondrial introgression in others. These results help further our knowledge of the historical geographic factors shaping the outstanding biodiversity of the Neotropics.