Building an artificial cell is a research area that is rigorously studied in the field of synthetic biology. It has brought about much attention with the aim of ultimately constructing a natural cell-like structure. In particular, with the more mature cell-free platforms and various compartmentalization methods becoming available, achieving this aim seems not far away. In this review, we discuss the various types of artificial cells capable of hosting several cellular functions. Different compartmental boundaries and the mature and evolving technologies that are used for compartmentalization are examined, and exciting recent advances that overcome or have the potential to address current challenges are discussed. Ultimately, we show how compartmentalization and cell-free systems have, and will, come together to fulfill the goal to assemble a fully synthetic cell that displays functionality and complexity as advanced as that in nature. The development of such artificial cell systems will offer insight into the fundamental study of evolutionary biology and the sea of applications as a result. Although several challenges remain, emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence also appear to help pave the way to address them and achieve the ultimate goal.