Abstract Certain CRISPR-Cas elements integrate into Tn7-like transposons, forming CRISPR-associated transposon (CAST) systems. How the activity of these systems is controlled in situ has remained largely unknown. Here we characterize the MerR-type transcriptional regulator Alr3614 that is encoded by one of the CAST (AnCAST) system genes in the genome of cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We identify a number of Alr3614 homologs across cyanobacteria and suggest naming these regulators CvkR for Cas V-K repressors. Alr3614/CvkR is translated from leaderless mRNA and represses the AnCAST core modules cas12k and tnsB directly, and indirectly the abundance of the tracr-CRISPR RNA. We identify a widely conserved CvkR binding motif 5’-AnnACATnATGTnnT-3’. Crystal structure of CvkR at 1.6 Å resolution reveals that it comprises distinct dimerization and potential effector-binding domains and that it assembles into a homodimer, representing a discrete structural subfamily of MerR regulators. CvkR repressors are at the core of a widely conserved regulatory mechanism that controls type V-K CAST systems.