Chromosome painting is a useful technique for distinguishing specific chromosomes (fragments), elucidating the genetic relationships of different genomes or chromosomes, and identifying chromosomal rearrangements. The development of chromosome- or genome-specific probes is fundamental for chromosome painting. The possibility for developing such probes specifically painting homoeologous chromosomes in allopolyploid species has been questioned since that chromosomes belonging to the same homoeologous group share highly conserved sequences. In the present study, we attempted to construct a wheat chromosome 4D-specific oligo probe library by selecting 4D-specific sequences in reference genome of common wheat cv. Chinese Spring (CS, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). The synthesized library contains 27,392 oligos. Oligo painting using the probe library confirmed its specificity, shown by that only chromosome 4D could be painted in three wheat genotypes and CS nulli-tetrasomic line N4AT4D. Oligo painting was successfully used to define the 4D breakpoints in CS deletion lines involving 4D and two wheat-Haynaldia villosa 4D–4V translocation lines. Thirteen wheat relatives and a Triticum durum-H. villosa amphiploid were used for oligo painting. Except the 4D in two Aegilops tauschii accessions, the 4M in Ae. comosa and 4U in Ae. umbellulata could be painted. In tetraploid Ae. ventricosa, both 4D and 4M could be painted; however, the signal intensity of 4M was less compared with 4D. No painted chromosome was observed for the other alien species. This indicated that the relationship among D/M/U was closer than that among D/A/B as well as D with genomes H/R/Ss/Sc/Y/P/N/J. Our successful development of 4D-specific oligo probe library may serve as a model for developing oligo probes specific for other homoeologous chromosomes.