Parchment, the skins of animals prepared for use as writing surfaces, offers a valuable source of genetic information. Many have clearly defined provenance, allowing for the genetic findings to be evaluated in temporal and spatial context. While these documents can yield evidence of the animal sources, the DNA contained within these aged skins is often damaged and fragmented. Previously, genetic studies targeting parchment have used destructive sampling techniques and so the development and validation of non-destructive sampling methods would expand opportunities and facilitate testing of more precious documents, especially those with historical significance. Here we present genetic data obtained by non-destructive sampling of eight parchments spanning the 15th century to the modern day. We define a workflow for enriching the mitochondrial genome (mtGenome), generating next-generation sequencing reads to permit species identification, and providing interpretation guidance. Using sample replication, comparisons to destructively sampled controls, and by establishing authentication criteria, we were able to confidently assign full/near full mtGenome sequences to 56.3% of non-destructively sampled parchments, each with greater than 90% of the mtGenome reference covered. Six of eight parchments passed all four established thresholds with at least one non-destructive sample, highlighting promise for future studies.