Sex determination directs development as male or female in sexually reproducing organisms. Evolutionary transitions in sex determination have occurred frequently, suggesting simple mechanisms behind the transitions, yet their detail remains elusive. Here we explore the links between mechanisms of transitions in sex determination and sex chromosome evolution at both recent and deeper temporal scales (<1 Myr; ~79 Myr). We studied a rare example of a species with intraspecific variation in sex determination, Carinascincus ocellatus, and a relative, Liopholis whitii, using c-banding and mapping of repeat motifs and a custom Y chromosome probe set to identify the sex chromosomes. We identified both unique and conserved regions of the Y chromosome among C. ocellatus populations differing in sex determination. There was no evidence for homology of sex chromosomes between C. ocellatus and L. whitii, suggesting independent evolutionary origins. We discuss sex chromosome homology between members of the subfamily Lygosominae and propose links between sex chromosome evolution, sex determination transitions, and karyotype evolution.