Target enrichment of conserved genomic regions facilitates collecting sequences of many orthologous loci from non-model organisms to address phylogenetic, phylogeographic, population genetic, and molecular evolution questions. Bait sets for sequence capture can simultaneously target thousands of loci, which opens new avenues of research on speciose groups. Current phylogenetic hypotheses on the >103,000 species of Hemiptera have failed to unambiguously resolve major nodes, suggesting that alternative datasets and more thorough taxon sampling may be required to resolve relationships. We here use a recently designed ultraconserved element (UCE) bait set for Hemiptera, with a focus on the suborder Heteroptera, or the true bugs, to test previously proposed relationships. We present newly generated UCE data for 36 samples representing three suborders, all seven heteropteran infraorders, 23 families, and 34 genera of Hemiptera and one thysanopteran outgroup. To improve taxon sampling, we also mined additional UCE loci in silico from published hemipteran genomic and transcriptomic data. We obtained 2,271 UCE loci for newly sequenced hemipteran taxa, ranging from 265 to 1,696 (average 904) per sample. These were similar in number to the data mined from transcriptomes and genomes, but with fewer loci overall. The amount of missing data correlates with greater phylogenetic divergence from taxa used to design the baits. This bait set hybridizes to a wide range of hemipteran taxa and specimens of varying quality, including dried specimens as old as 1973. Our estimated phylogeny yielded topologies consistent with other studies for most nodes and was strongly-supported. We also demonstrate that UCE loci are almost exclusively from the transcribed portion of the genome, thus data can be successfully integrated with existing genomic and transcriptomic resources for more comprehensive phylogenetic sampling, an important feature in the era of phylogenomics. UCE approaches can be used by other researchers for additional studies on hemipteran evolution and other research that requires well resolved phylogenies.