Abstract— Erythroxylum macrophyllum is a morphologically variable and widely distributed species complex in Central and South America with several sub-specific taxa and numerous species included in its synonymy. A single variety grows in the Colombo-Venezuelan savanna region which can be distinguished from the rest of the E. macrophyllum complex by the size of leaves, cataphyll and stipule characteristics, and shape of calyx lobes. A molecular phylogeny reconstructed from 519 nuclear genes also reveals that the savanna variety is more closely related to E. acuminatum and E. pauciflorum than E. macrophyllum . This phylogenomic evidence also suggests Erythroxylum sect. Macrocalyx, to which E. macrophyllum belongs, is a polyphyletic taxonomic section. We thus propose elevating this variety to specific status, as Erythroxylum savannarum . We provide an updated taxonomic description, information about its habitat and distribution, and justify its informal IUCN categorization of Near Threatened (NT).