Seoul orthohantavirus (SEOV) is a rat-associated zoonotic pathogen with an almost worldwide distribution. In 2019, the first autochthonous human case of SEOV-induced hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome was reported in Germany, and a pet rat was identified as the source of the zoonotic infection. To further investigate the SEOV reservoir, additional rats from the patient and another owner, all of which were purchased from the same vendor, were tested. SEOV RNA and anti-SEOV antibodies were found in both of the patient’s rats and in two of the three rats belonging to the other owner. The complete coding sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments obtained from one rat per owner exhibited a high sequence similarity to SEOV strains of breeder rat or human origin from the Netherlands, France, the USA, and Great Britain. Serological screening of 490 rats from breeding facilities and 563 wild rats from Germany (2007–2020) as well as 594 wild rats from the Netherlands (2013–2021) revealed 1 and 6 seropositive individuals, respectively. However, SEOV RNA was not detected in any of these animals. Increased surveillance of pet, breeder, and wild rats is needed to identify the origin of the SEOV strain in Europe and to develop measures to prevent transmission to the human population.