Next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) allow systematists to amass a wealth of genomic data from non-model species for phylogenetic resolution at various temporal scales. However, phylogenetic inference for many lineages dominated by non-model species has not yet benefited from NGS, which can complement Sanger sequencing studies. One such lineage, whose phylogenetic relationships remain uncertain, is the diverse, agriculturally important and charismatic Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Given the lack of consensus on higher-level relationships and the importance of a robust phylogeny for evolutionary hypothesis testing, we use a large data set comprised of hundreds of ultraconserved element (UCE) loci to infer the phylogeny of Coreoidea (excluding Stenocephalidae and Hyocephalidae), with emphasis on the families Coreidae and Alydidae. We generated three data sets by including alignments that contained loci sampled for at least 50%, 60%, or 70% of the total taxa, and inferred phylogeny using maximum likelihood and summary coalescent methods. Twenty-six external morphological features used in relatively comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of coreoids were also re-evaluated within our molecular phylogenetic framework. We recovered 439–970 loci per species (16%–36% of loci targeted) and combined this with previously generated UCE data for 12 taxa. All data sets, regardless of analytical approach, yielded topologically similar and strongly supported trees, with the exception of outgroup relationships and the position of Hydarinae. We recovered a monophyletic Coreoidea, with Rhopalidae highly supported as the sister group to Alydidae + Coreidae. Neither Alydidae nor Coreidae were monophyletic; the coreid subfamilies Hydarinae and Pseudophloeinae were recovered as more closely related to Alydidae than to other coreid subfamilies. Coreinae were paraphyletic with respect to Meropachyinae. Most morphological traits were homoplastic with several clades defined by few, if any, synapomorphies. Our results demonstrate the utility of phylogenomic approaches in generating robust hypotheses for taxa with long-standing phylogenetic problems and highlight that novel insights may come from such approaches.