Rogadinae are a cosmopolitan, species-rich braconid wasp subfamily whose species are endoparasitoids that attack larvae of a number of lepidopteran families. Members of this subfamily are characterized by pupating within the mummified host larval skin. The subfamily contains six tribes whose relationships have only been partially clarified: Aleiodini, Betylobraconini, Clinocentrini, Rogadini, Stiropiini and Yeliconini. The limits and composition of the closely related subfamilies to the Rogadinae, Hormiinae and Lysiterminae, also remain unclear. Here, we generated ultraconserved element data to reconstruct an almost fully resolved phylogeny for the members of Rogadinae and related subfamilies. Based on our best estimate of phylogeny, we confirm the monophyly of Rogadinae including Betylobraconini, synonymize Xenolobus Fahringer and Bequartia Cameron within the species-rich genus Aleiodes Wesmael (syn.n.) based on DNA, and synonymize Promesocentrus van Achterberg with Pilichremylus Belokobylskij (syn.n.) based on morphology. We also consistently recovered Hormiinae and Lysiterminae as not reciprocally monophyletic, and thus propose to unite their members under Hormiinae. The ancestral host preference for Rogadinae was probably attacking concealed lepidopteran larvae, with the occurrence of at least two main subsequent transitions to attack both concealed and exposed hosts, one within Rogadini and a second within Aleiodini. We highlight the importance of natural history collections as a source for conducting genomic-based studies using techniques that allow to obtain a substantial amount of data from considerably old preserved insect specimens.