Premise of the Study Calandrinia are small, succulent herbs that vary broadly in habitat, morphology, life history, and photosynthetic metabolism. The lineage is placed within the Montiaceae, which in turn is sister to the rest of the Portulacineae (Caryophyllales). Calandrinia occupy two distinct biogeographic regions, one in the Americas ( 14 species), and one in Australia ( 74 species). Past analyses of the Montiaceae present conflicting hypotheses for the phylogenetic placement and monophyly of Calandrinia, and to date, there has been no molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Australian species. Methods Using a targeted gene enrichment approach, we sequenced 297 loci from multiple gene families across the Montiaceae, including all named and 16 putative new species of Australian Calandrinia, and the enigmatic monotypic genus Rumicastrum. Key Results All data sets and analyses reject the monophyly of Calandrinia, with Australian and New World Calandrinia each comprising distinct and well-supported clades, and Rumicastrum nested within Australian Calandrinia. We provide the first well-supported phylogeny for Australian Calandrinia, which includes all named species and several phrase-named taxa. Conclusions This study brings much needed clarity to relationships within Montiaceae and confirms that New World and Australian Calandrinia do not form a clade. Australian Calandrinia is a longtime resident of the continent, having diverged from its sister lineage 30 Ma, concurrent with separation of Australia from Antarctica. Most diversification occurred during the middle Miocene, with lowered speciation and/or higher extinction rates coincident with the establishment of severe aridity by the late Miocene.