Thinopyrum intermedium possesses many desirable agronomic traits that make it a valuable genetic source for wheat improvement. The precise identification of individual chromosomes of allohexaploid Th. intermedium is a challenge due to its three sub-genomic constitutions with complex evolutionary ancestries. The non-denaturing fluorescent in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) using tandem-repeat oligos, including Oligo-B11 and Oligo-pDb12H, effectively distinguished the St, J and JS genomes, while Oligo-FISH painting, based on seven oligonucleotide pools derived from collinear regions between barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was able to identify each linkage group of the Th. intermedium chromosomes. We subsequently established the first karyotype of Th. intermedium with individual chromosome recognition using sequential ND-FISH and Oligo-FISH painting. The chromosome constitutions of 14 wheat–Th. intermedium partial amphiploids and addition lines were characterized. Distinct intergenomic chromosome rearrangements were revealed among Th. intermedium chromosomes in these amphiploids and addition lines. The precisely defined karyotypes of these wheat–Th. intermedium derived lines may be helpful for further study on chromosome evolution, chromatin introgression and wheat breeding programs.