Abstract Panicum miliaceum L. was domesticated in northern China at least 7000 years ago and was subsequentially adopted in many areas throughout Eurasia. One such locale is Areni-1 an archaeological cave site in Southern Armenia, where vast quantities archaeobotanical material were well preserved via desiccation. The rich botanical material found at Areni-1 includes P. miliaceum grains that were identified morphologically and 14 C dated to the medieval period (873 ± 36 CE and 1118 ± 35 CE). To investigate the demographic and evolutionary history of the Areni-1 millet, we used ancient DNA extraction, hybridization capture enrichment, and high throughput sequencing to assemble three chloroplast genomes from the medieval grains and then compared these sequences to 50 modern P. miliaceum chloroplast genomes. Overall, the chloroplast genomes contained a low amount of diversity with domesticated accessions separated by a maximum of 5 SNPs and little inference on demography could be made. However, in phylogenies the chloroplast genomes separated into two clades, similar to what has been reported for nuclear DNA from P. miliaceum . The chloroplast genomes of two wild (undomesticated) accessions of P. miliaceum contained a relatively large number of variants, 11 SNPs, not found in the domesticated accessions. These results demonstrate that P. miliaceum grains from archaeological sites can preserve DNA for at least 1000 years and serve as a genetic resource to study the domestication of this cereal crop.