Morphological, mitochondrial, and nuclear phylogenomic data were combined to address phylogenetic and species delimitation questions in cave-limited Cicurina spiders from central Texas. Special effort was focused on specimens and cave locations in the San Antonio region (Bexar County), home to four eyeless species listed as US Federally Endangered. Sequence capture experiments resulted in the recovery of ~200–400 homologous ultra-conserved element (UCE) nuclear loci across taxa, and nearly complete COI mitochondrial DNA sequences from the same set of individuals. Some of these nuclear and mitochondrial sequences were recovered from “standard” museum specimens without special preservation of DNA material, including museum specimens preserved in the 1990s. Multiple phylogenetic analyses of the UCE data agree in the recovery of two major lineages of eyeless Cicurina in Texas. These lineages also differ in mitochondrial clade membership, female genitalic morphology, degree of troglomorphy (as measured by relative leg length), and are mostly allopatric across much of Texas. Rare sympatry was confirmed in Bexar County, where members of the two major clades sometimes co-exist in the same karst feature. Both nuclear phylogenomic and mitochondrial data indicate the existence of undescribed species from the San Antonio region, although further sampling and collection of adult specimens is needed to explicitly test these hypotheses. Our data support the two following species synonymies (Cicurina venii Gertsch, 1992 = Cicurina madla Gertsch, 1992; Cicurina loftini Cokendolpher, 2004 = Cicurina vespera Gertsch, 1992), formally proposed here. Overall, our taxonomy-focused research has many important conservation implications, and again highlights the fundamental importance of robust taxonomy in conservation research.