Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that affect the genetic divergence between diadromous and resident populations across heterogeneous environments is a challenging task. While diadromy may promote gene flow leading to a lack of genetic differentiation among populations, resident populations tend to be affected by local adaptation and/or plasticity. Studies on these effects on genomic divergence in non-model amphidromous species are scarce. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widespread fish species in the Southern Hemisphere, exhibits two life histories, an ancestral diadromous, specifically, amphidromous form and a derived freshwater resident form. We examined the genetic diversity and divergence among 20 estuarine and resident populations across the Chilean distribution of G. maculatus and assessed the extent to which selection is involved in the differentiation among resident populations. We obtained nearly 4400 SNP markers using a RADcap approach for 224 individuals. As expected, collections from estuarine locations typically consist of diadromous individuals. Diadromous populations are highly differentiated from their resident counterparts by both neutral and putative adaptive markers. While diadromous populations exhibit high gene flow and lack site fidelity, resident populations appear to be the product of different colonization events with relatively low genetic diversity and varying levels of gene flow. In particular, the northernmost resident populations were clearly genetically distinct and reproductively isolated from each other suggesting local adaptation. Our study provides insights into the role of life history differences in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the importance of genetic divergence in species evolution.