Consumption of buffalofish has been sporadically associated with Haff disease-like illnesses involving sudden onset muscle pain and weakness due to skeletal muscle rhabdomyolysis, but determination of precisely which species are associated with these illnesses has been impeded by a lack of species-specific DNA-based markers. Here, three closely related species of buffalofish native to the Mississippi River Basin (Ictiobus bubalus, Ictiobus cyprinellus and Ictiobus niger) that have previously proven genetically indistinguishable using both mitochondrial and nuclear single-locus sequencing were reliably discriminated using low-coverage whole genome sequencing (‘genome skimming’). Using 44 specimens representing the three species collected from the mid/upper (Missouri) and lower (Louisiana) regions of the species’ native ranges, the SISRS (Site Identification from Short Read Sequences) bioinformatics pipeline was adapted to (1) identify over 620Mbp of putatively homologous nuclear sequence data and (2) isolate over 140,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that supported accurate species delimitation, all without the use of a reference genome or annotation data. These sites were used to classify Ictiobus spp. samples with genome-skim data, along with a larger set (n=67) where ultraconserved elements (UCEs) were sequenced. Analyses of whole mitochondrial data revealed more limited signal. Nearly all samples matched their purported species based on morphologic identification, but two Missouri samples morphologically identified as I. niger grouped with samples of I. bubalus, albeit with significant enrichment of I. niger SNPs. To our knowledge this is the first report of a DNA-based tool to reliably discriminate these three morphologically distinct species.