Protocol for DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization labeling of metaphase chromosomes
Protocol for DNA fluorescent in situ (DNA FISH) hybridization of fixed cultured human cells
The phylogenetic relationships for Ipomoea species are incongruent in previous studies. Comparative karyotype analysis can provide valuable information for phylogenetic relationships among species. A reliable and efficient system for chromosome identification is the foundation for karyotype analysis. However, for the Ipomoea species, individual chromosomes were not identified in all previous reported karyotypes due to their small size, high number and similar morphology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using oligonucleotides (oligos) as probes is a new strategy for chromosome identification and karyotype analysis. Here, we developed the first set of oligo-based probes based on the reference genome of Ipomoea nil, a model species in the genus Ipomoea. In all, we developed four oligo-FISH probes. By a combined use of four oligo probes, sequential FISH analysis were conducted on the same metaphase cells with each round including two probes, which permitted simultaneous identification of all I. nil chromosomes and anchoring 15 pseudochromosomes to individual cytological chromosomes. Moreover, 45S and 5S rDNA were mapped to specific chromosomes. A karyotype based on individually identified chromosomes was established, which was the first FISH-based molecular cytogenetic karyotype of I. nil. Our study has created the basis for studying chromosome variation and evolution in genus Ipomoea by comparative karyotype analysis using this set of oligo probes.
Daicel Arbor Biosciences present on the design and synthesis of custom FISH probes for use in various cytogenetic applications.
Protocol for preparing metaphase chromosome spreads in human cells
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins silence gene expression by chemically and physically modifying chromatin. A subset of PcG target loci are compacted and cluster in the nucleus; a conformation that is thought to contribute to gene silencing. However, how these interactions influence gross nuclear organization and their relationship with transcription remains poorly understood. Here we examine the role of Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) in shaping 3D genome organization in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Using a combination of imaging and Hi-C analyses, we show that PRC1-mediated long-range interactions are independent of CTCF and can bridge sites at a megabase scale. Impairment of PRC1 enzymatic activity does not directly disrupt these interactions. We demonstrate that PcG targets coalesce in vivo, and that developmentally induced expression of one of the target loci disrupts this spatial arrangement. Finally, we show that transcriptional activation and the loss of PRC1-mediated interactions are separable events. These findings provide important insights into the function of PRC1, while highlighting the complexity of this regulatory system.
Chromosome painting is a useful technique for distinguishing specific chromosomes (fragments), elucidating the genetic relationships of different genomes or chromosomes, and identifying chromosomal rearrangements. The development of chromosome- or genome-specific probes is fundamental for chromosome painting. The possibility for developing such probes specifically painting homoeologous chromosomes in allopolyploid species has been questioned since that chromosomes belonging to the same homoeologous group share highly conserved sequences. In the present study, we attempted to construct a wheat chromosome 4D-specific oligo probe library by selecting 4D-specific sequences in reference genome of common wheat cv. Chinese Spring (CS, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). The synthesized library contains 27,392 oligos. Oligo painting using the probe library confirmed its specificity, shown by that only chromosome 4D could be painted in three wheat genotypes and CS nulli-tetrasomic line N4AT4D. Oligo painting was successfully used to define the 4D breakpoints in CS deletion lines involving 4D and two wheat-Haynaldia villosa 4D–4V translocation lines. Thirteen wheat relatives and a Triticum durum-H. villosa amphiploid were used for oligo painting. Except the 4D in two Aegilops tauschii accessions, the 4M in Ae. comosa and 4U in Ae. umbellulata could be painted. In tetraploid Ae. ventricosa, both 4D and 4M could be painted; however, the signal intensity of 4M was less compared with 4D. No painted chromosome was observed for the other alien species. This indicated that the relationship among D/M/U was closer than that among D/A/B as well as D with genomes H/R/Ss/Sc/Y/P/N/J. Our successful development of 4D-specific oligo probe library may serve as a model for developing oligo probes specific for other homoeologous chromosomes.
Acute promyeloid leukemia (APL) is characterized by the oncogenic fusion protein PML-RARα, a major etiological agent in APL. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of PML-RARα in leukemogenesis remain largely unknown.
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